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Annotated Book

Fiedler, Leslie A.  Love and Death in the American Novel. New York: Stein and Day, 1966. Print.

Love and Death in the American Novel is a thought-provoking book, a must-read for all scholars and student majoring in English literature. The book examines thoroughly the themes of love and death in the American novel as treated by major American writers. Leslie Fiedler gives an in-depth analysis of Moby Dick, The Scarlet Letter, and The Huckleberry Finn, in addition to providing a shorter analysis of other works such as The Last of the Mohicans, Uncle Tom’s Cabin, The Monks of the Monk Hall, and The Victim. In his examination, Fiedler shows how American writers have failed to portray adult heterosexual love and how they have become infatuated with incest, death, and innocent homosexuality. Based on this premise, Fiedler argues, “There is a pattern imposed both by the writers of our past and the very conditions of life in the United States from which no American novelist can escape, no matter what philosophy he consciously adopts or what theme he thinks he pursues” (xi). In The Scarlet Letter, for instance, Fiedler shows how Hawthorne after making passion a central theme in the novel switches to write “an elegiac treatise on the death of love” in the way a love a story is written (506).

 Love and Death in the American Novel is 603 pages. It is split into three parts. The first and second parts explore the how this pattern emerged and evolved and the third part studies how Moby Dick, The Scarlet Letter, and The Huckleberry Finn, could not escape this pattern.

The Logic in Lydia Maria Child’s An Appeal for the Indians

In the nineteenth century, the American expansion into the western frontier led to the destruction of the Indian way of life. The Indians were not only being murdered, but also their culture was being exterminated. Many abolitionists have appealed for social justice to Indians in either speeches or pamphlets delivering their account on Indian rights. In 1868, The Indian Peace Commission issued a report condemning white American’s annihilation of Indians for two centuries (214). However, this report was claimed to be promoting ‘a war of extermination against Indian culture” (214). In An Appeal for the Indians, Child responds to this report and calls for justice to Indians who underwent one of the worst genocides in their encounters with the settlers. Child’s thinking in this pamphlet astounds readers due to its logic, powerful ideas, and well-supported arguments.

 The report states, “Let polygamy be punished”(219). Child refutes this idea and espouses a new approach that advantages those who are not polygamists. She writes, “In this way, the fixed habit of many generations might be weakened” (219). Child makes a good argument when she reasons that force would not be the preeminent way to embrace. She adds, “Indians, like other human beings, are more easily led by the angel Attraction, than driven by the Demon Penalty” (220). Child proceeds to support this claim by negating another claim that “Indians are incapable of civilization”(220). Child believes that although Indian’s mode of warfare is ferocious; yet, it does not define them entirely. “All wars are barbarous to a shocking degree,” exclaims Child. Furthering this argument, Child brings historical element in her refutation. She writes, “If this proves incapacity for civilization, the Greeks and Romans were incapable of it; for they did the same” (220).

Child attempts in her appeal to show how Indians can be perceived by others. Clearly she writes, “Simply as younger members of the same great human family, who need to be protected, instructed and encouraged, till they are capable of appreciating and sharing all our advantages” (220). When reading these words, it becomes very evident that Child has an altruistic thinking to tell and humanitarian cause to advocate. A simple logic, Indians are humans like every one else. Hence, people have to get along even if one of them is less advanced. In this case,  help and support are given.

Then, Child wonders about the contradictions that reside between American religious beliefs and their actions. She argues that Indians would not embrace the teachings of Christianity because they do not see them applied. Child asks, “How could those simple people believe in a religion whose professors manifested no sense of justice or mercy toward them?”(222). At least Indians, as Child points out, have consistent beliefs. She writes, “ [Indians] profess to believe in revenge, and practice accordingly; whole we profess a religion of love and forgiveness, and do such things as these!” (223). Reading through such astute words appear to prove that Child has sound logic. Ostensibly, Child declares that Indians are as smart as others, but because they don’t share the same cultural traditions as others, they lack of civilization is attributed to them.

Works Cited

Child, Lydia Maria. Homomok & Other Writing on Indians. Ed. Carolyn L. Karcher. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press: 1986. Print.

The Life of Frederick Douglass Digitized

On February 20, 1895, America bade farewell to Frederick Douglass, one of the most influential human rights activists in American history. Douglass spent almost his entire life opposing slavery and advocating issues on gender.  Douglas was very famous for his speaking career, which he started by narrating his experiences when he was a slave. To understand Fredrick Douglas, his life as a slave and his life as a freeman, I have looked at four digital databases that explore him: “Frederick Douglass Papers Edition”, “Frederick Douglass: National Historic Site”, “Frederick Douglass Comes to Life”, and “Digital History: Frederick Douglass’ Letter to Mary Todd Lincoln.”

The first digital database is “Frederick Douglass Papers Edition,” an excellent project that was integrated in 1973 at Yale University, as a result of consultations among the National Historical Publications and Records Commission, the Association for the Study of African American Life and History. The project aims at preserving the primary source materials that document Frederick Douglass. The database offers a biography of Douglass supplemented by a timeline of events associated with his life. Another excellent feature in this site is that it includes a general bibliography of Douglass, from his autobiographies to books about him to books directed especially for youth. Moreover, this project offers information about Douglass’s speeches, debates, interviews, and finally his correspondence under which it includes a list that indicates the date of the letters, the recipients, the place in which it was written, and the location of where the text was deemed. Overall, the website is a great attempt to supply a well-annotated scholarly publications of Douglass’s works.

In the second digital database, “Frederick Douglass: National Historic Site,” Douglass’ life is not comprehensively explored; yet beautifully presented. This database serves as an exhibit of Douglass’ life at Cedar Hill, Washington, D.C., where Douglass spent the last years of his life. Because this home was important in Douglass’ political life, this exhibit comes to shed light on one major part in his life. The features available in this site include a house tour, portraits of Douglass, and an image gallery. In these features, visitors can see a wide range of Douglass’ personal possessions, books, his home furnishings, and photographs of his family and friends. It is an ambitious project; however, the fact that it is designed specifically to tackle one part of Douglass’ life makes this site less useful when the exploration of his life is needed.

The “Frederick Douglass Comes to Life” website has a poor design, but contains a lot of information that is designed for classroom discussions and hands-on workshops. This website provides a brief biography of Douglass. Also, three of Douglass’ important speeches are included: “The Church and Prejudice”, “Fighting Rebels with Only One Hand,” and “What the Black Man Wants.” Another great feature in this website is the Douglass Scholars Program that aims at spreading Douglass’ message and gives information about Douglass’ life that would inspire young people in their lives. The program is intended for elementary through secondary schools. The idea behind this innovative program is great. The main goal is to teach Douglass’ principles. The principles are:

  • The Proper Use of Power Is To Promote the Common Good.
  • Give Up Something You Want In Order To Help Someone Else.
  • Overcome Doubt and Fear.
  • Understand Why and How To Control the Human Ego.
  • Do What Is Right and Proper Even If No One Is Looking.
  • Use Knowledge and Understanding Wisely.
  • Overcome Indecisiveness.
  •  Make Gratitude a Part of Every Thought And Action.
  • Practice the Skill of Listening Carefully Before Making Judgments.
  • Remain True To Your Word.
  • Hold a Vision For the Desired Future.
  • Recognize That Your Success Is As Much a Motivation To Others As To You.

The program is given in various forms: a three-day comprehensive program that invites students to grasp these principles, or one-day and two-day programs, that offer only introduction to the principles. Schedules for these programs are outlined in the website.

The last digital tool, “Digital History: Frederick Douglass’ Letter to Mary Todd Lincoln” examines only one particular aspect of Douglass’ life, which is his relationship with Abraham Lincoln. In order to do so, Douglass’ letter to Lincoln’s recently widowed Mary Todd is fully examined. In this letter, Douglass thanks Mary Todd for her gift of Lincoln’s walking cane. The site displays a manuscript of the letter and its transcript. It also provides a brief biography of his life and a section for additional web resources about Douglass.

In closing, the above-mentioned digital tools are probably the most visited ones. It is very evident that the life of Frederick Douglass has not been abundantly digitized. More work is needed to address one of the most influential heroes in American history.

Works Cited

“Frederick Douglass.” National Historic Site. Web. 26 July 2013.

“Frederick Douglass Comes to Life.” Frederick Douglass Speeches-Seminars on Race Relations and Gender Equity. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 July 2013.

“Frederick Douglass’ Letter to Mary Todd Lincoln.” Digital History. Web. 27 July 2013.

“The Frederick Douglass Papers.” The Frederick Douglass Papers Edition: Series Two. Institute for American Thought. Web. 26 July 2013.

Anna’s Support of Frederick Douglass’ Escape from Slavery

“…I felt like one who had escaped a den of hungry lions,” writes Douglass about how his life was when he was a slave (Douglass 106). When I read great stories of people who have struggled and fought for their freedom, I look at my own life and see how much passion I have for freedom. We all experience fundamental obstacles in our life, but there is a moment when something occurs and accelerates this passion for freedom. That moment happened to Frederick Douglass before his escape from slavery.

Frederick Augustos Washington Bailey was born in 1818 in slavery. Seven years later, his father dies leading him to live with another family in Baltimore as family servant and errand boy. On September 3, 1838, he manages to escape with financial assistance from his fiancé, Anna Murray, a free black woman from Baltimore. He arrives in New York the next day and nearly two weeks later, he marries Anna Murray and changes his name to Frederick Douglass (adapted from The Oxford Frederick Douglass Reader).

After fleeing slavery, Douglass’ life changed, becoming one of the most renowned abolitionist and influential activists. Hence, it is the freedom that makes us attain our ultimate goals. Although the notion “freedom” is often associated with the idea of breaking from slavery , it does have another essence that goes beyond being treated as a property; it’s freeing our mind from repetitive thoughts and worries.  In today’s world, we face a seemingly endless supply of boundaries, difficulties, but we struggle with our power to overcome them. As an employee, student, or even as an independent businessman, we are subject to a “slavery system” under which we are strained. We feel strangled waiting for that moment.

The story behind Douglass’ escape inspires me, but more evidently, the role Anna played in that escape. Can I say that it was love that set Douglass free? Conceivably, yes! It is true that the passion for freedom had been inside Douglass before he met Anna. However, the appearance of Anna in his life made him eager to expedite his plans. In Frederick Douglass: A Biography, James Trotman states, “Meeting Anna, falling in love, and wishing for marriage only accelerated the passion for freedom that was already on fire in Frederick” (28). His plan to escape succeeded because of Anna,” adds Trotman, to show the role Anna played in this escape, and eventually, in his life as a freeman. Only 12 days had elapsed when Douglass married Anna Murray. He wanted to be united with his love very fast and we see how his tone changed in his narrative after his escape with the use of the plural personal pronoun “we”. Now, it is no longer a story of  self, but rather, a story of a perfect union. Douglass writes right after his marriage, “ …we set out forthwith…we were so anxious to get a place of safety…we decided to take seats in the stage…” (Douglass109). I am not suggesting that if it were not Anna there, he would not have escaped, but rather I would say that her presence in his life rushed him to break the chains of his slavery.

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick, and William L. Andrews. The Oxford Frederick Douglass Reader. New York: Oxford UP, 1996. Print.

Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass: An American Slave. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 2009. Print.

Trotman, C. James. Frederick Douglass: A Biography. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood, 2011. Print.

Critical Readings on Abigail Adams’s Political Observations

This annotation exposes critical readings on Abigail Adams. It mainly presents views on the life of Abigail Adams as she witnessed major events such as the American Revolution and the Independence.

Bobbe, Dorothie De Bear. Abigail Adams, the Second First Lady. New York: Minton, Balch &, 1929. Print.

Dorothie De Bear Bobbe’s Abigail Adams, the Second First Lady invites the readers to a beautiful journey of the life of Abigail Adams. Bobbe examines substantially Abigail’s character, emotional state, and her relationship with her children who gave her hope and reassurance when her husband was away. Bobbe gives a vivid description of Abigail’s family life. Abigail Adams also tackles one critical period of Abigail’s life when she suffered both physically and mentally from a painful fever. The American Revolutionary War, as experienced by Abigail, is investigated in this book. During this period, Abigail’s letters to John, as Bobbe argues, show “her depth of feeling and her capacity for the most intense emotion”(85). The book advances as it exposes more of Abigail’s life from her role as the First Lady to her support to her husband to the increase of her personal popularity.

The book is split into 59 short chapters. The vast majority of these chapters are titled with only one word that refers to a particular event in Abigail’s life. A manuscript of one of Abigail’s letters is supplied at the beginning of the book. Also, the book has several illustrations. Bibliography and index are provided. Abigail Adams is a solid biographical narrative.

Criss, Mildred. Abigail Adams: Leading Lady. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1952. Print.

In Abigail Adams: Leading Lady, Criss attempts to explore the life of Abigail Adams from a more or less fictional view. From the beginning, Criss sheds light on Abigail’s devotion to her husband, John Adams. Criss talks about how Abigail and John met each other and got united to be “partners for life”. The relationship between Abigail and her mother is fully examined in this book. But more importantly, Criss scrutinizes the influence of Abigail on John’s political life, particularly during The American Revolutionary War. “Romance” is a chapter given in the book to discuss a difficult period in their life, the apartness. The book proceeds to expose Abigail’s life, as she becomes the First Lady. Then, it talks about the final years in her life.

The book is broken into 10 chapters, which are given specific themes associated with events from Abigail’s life. The book includes a wide range of pictures and portraits of Abigail, John, and other people and also of places and events that were of importance in their life. The most beautiful part in the book is its style; it takes the form of a fictional story, which is beautifully written. Notes and bibliography are also provided.

Ellis, Joseph J. First Family: Abigail and John. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2010. Print.

In First Family: Abigail and John, Ellis investigates the relationship between Abigail and her husband, John. First Family does not cover the whole range of Abigail’s life, but rather, from the time Abigail and John met in 1759. Ellis attempts to examine deliberately the character of Abigail’s letters exposing her emotional state as she witnessed major events in her life such as the War. The influence of Abigail on John’s political career is explored in depth especially at the time when John was working on the Declaration of Independence. Ellis studies Abigail’s insightful political observations and views. For example, Ellis writes, “Abigail was an enthusiastic advocate for the four pieces of legislation pushed through Congress by the ultra-federalist in…1798”(188). Furthermore, First Family discusses Abigail’s feelings during her and her husband apartness. Ellis states, “ For more than twenty years Abigail had been urging her husband to retire from public life and join her…at Quincy” (214).

First Family is split into seven well-elaborated chapters. Although Ellis examines the Adams family as a whole, he delivers a good account, in particular, of Abigail’s influence on John’s career. Not only does Ellis discuss Abigail’s support and advice, but also notes their disagreement on various political matters.

Whitney, Janet. Abigail Adams. Boston: Little, Brown, 1947. Print.

Abigail Adams introduces a seamless examination of the American Revolution through the eyes of Abigail Adams. Whitney surveys major events that happened during Abigail’s life. For instance, the Battle of Bunker Hill, an important battle in the war, is examined thoroughly. Abigail’s life at the time where she and John were separated is explored with much emphasis on her state of emotions. Examples are drawn from her letters. Notwithstanding this separation, Whitney believes that Abigail showed much support and devotion to her husband. “I would not only have submitted to the absence I’ve already endured, but would if necessary, endure three years more,” (165) says Abigail after she was asked whether or not she was consented to let John leave. As Abigail Adams furthers, Abigail’s life is presented in depth. Whitney provides an exploration of her journey in Europe before she goes back to New York, and then to Philadelphia where she spent her last winter.

The book has four illustrations of Abigail, John Quincy Adams, Mount Wollaston, and the Adamses’ birthplaces. Abigail’s family tree is shown at the beginning of the book. Maps of the eastern part and western part of Massachusetts Bay are included. The book does provide a well written historic account as witnessed by Abigail.

Withey, Lynne. Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams. New York: Free, 1981. Print.

Withey’s Dearest Friend: A Life of Abigail Adams discusses major issues in Abigail’s life such as  women’s rights and political affairs involved with her husband.  Withey states that Abigail thought, “women were the intellectual equals of men and had a right to an education” (xi). Dearest Friend also explores how Abigail and John met and advances as it presents Abigail, the wife and mother. Abigail’s influence on John’s political life is noted; needless to say, her interest in the position of women in American society is examined. The American Revolution and the Independence from Abigail’s perspective are tackled expansively in this book. Withey investigates, as most writers have done, the separation of Abigail and John examining also her life in Europe. Dearest Friend goes on as it portrays Abigail’s life as the Vice President’s Lady and then as the First Lady. The book concludes by depicting the last years of her life.

Dearest Friend consists of 18 chapters supplemented by an epilogue and sources for the quotations mentioned in the book. The epilogue talks about the impact of Abigail’s death on John’s life. A wide range of pictures of people and places associated with Abigail’s life are also provided in the book.

The Devotion in Abigail Adams’s Letters to John Adams

I wonder sometimes  to what extent does the wife of a politician support her husband? And what the role does she play in her husband’s life? One of the best examples I can relate to is the story of John Adams and his wife, Abigail Adams whose influence is undoubtedly noted.

The second president of the United States, John Adams (1736-1826) and his wife, Abigail Adams (1744-1817) were at a distance for years at a time. Notwithstanding this separation, they wrote frequently to each other about a wide range of matters. What interested me was the language Abigail used in her letters, most evidently her devout words that were meant to inspire her husband during that period of apartness. Her letters were constructed very well lending themselves meritoriously to the understanding of Abigail’s influence on John’s life. Although they were physically apart, Abigail’s soul, as embodied in her letters, was present at all times.

When reading Abigail’s words, I can delve simply into her mind and see how ideas and thoughts are structured. She uses colorful and powerful language to carry her ideas very well. On a letter dated February 8, 1797, and to show her assistance, Abigail writes to her husband on the day the electoral ballots are opened and the president of the United States is declared. “My thoughts and my meditations are with you, though personally absent…my feelings are not those of pride or ostentation, upon the occasion,” Abigail endeavors to ascertain her sincere support to her husband in this new critical chapter of their lives (Adams 174).

In the same letter, Abigail composes this prelude:

The sun is dressed in brightest beams,

To give thy honors to the day

Abigail uses three aspects to show that she was at the verge of her intellectuality when writing this letter. She starts with astute words in a form of verse followed by religious content in a form of prayer and concludes with words of comfort and support. Abigail prays,“ And now, O Lord, my God, thou hast made thy servant ruler over the people. Give unto him an understanding heart, that he may know how to go out and come in before this great people; that he may discern between good and bad”. Her choice of words in this prayer denotes for her affection and care toward her husband.

I can state unequivocally that in Abigail’s letters, I can find a sense of reassurance. Her familiar letters epitomize a surge; not only does she unreservedly enthuse her husband, but also she shows her will to accompany him in this journey. “I am ready and willing to follow my husband wherever he chooses,” writes Abigail, on a letter dated April 26,1797, to declare this commitment (Adams 176). Abigail knew that by being a First Lady, she would have now more responsibilities and social obligations. However, her love and dedication was astounding. By writing to him, Abigail helped John be his true companion on political matters, as Edith Gelles explores in her book, Abigail Adams: A Writing Life. John often sought devout words from his wife. He writes after the inauguration, “I never wanted your advice and assistance more in my life”(Akers 68). But I must say that John Adams was very fortunate to have a woman like Abigail in his life, to have such influence.

Work Cited

Adams, Abigail, John Adams, and Charles Francis Adams. Letters of Mrs. Adams, the Wife of John Adams. Boston: C.C. Little and J. Brown, 1840. Print.

Akers, Charles W. Abigail Adams, an American Woman. Boston: Little, Brown, 1980.Print.

Gelles, Edith B. Abigail Adams: A Writing Life. New York: Routledge, 2002. Print.

The Letters of Abigail Adams

This annotation exposes selected sources that list the letters of Abigail Adams, the wife of the US second president, John Adams.

Adams, Abigail, John Adams, and Charles Francis Adams. Letters of Mrs. Adams, the Wife of John Adams. Boston: C.C. Little and J. Brown, 1840. Print.

Includes a collection of letters that are written between 1761 and 1814. The letters, compiled from a period of 53 years of Abigail’s life, are listed chronologically and prefaced by a long memoir that supplies an in-depth biography of Abigail, which is written by the editor. The memoir (41 pages) attempts to provide a historical background on issues such as heroism of women and explore other well-known female figures such as for example Anne Hutchinson. The editor delves into these accounts to show women’s power and influence in the early American history. The contents provide topics next to each letter and does not repeat John Adams’s name. The editor chooses to write “To the same” instead. It is an excellent work. Although Letters of Mrs. Adams is a small book with a small print size, which might cause eye fatigue or difficulty for reading, yet, it offers excellent explanatory footnotes providing additional information or clarification on points in the letters. It is an important book and saves hours of work looking for all Abigail’s letters. It is accurate, has a letter dated April 26,1797 that is not found in major databases such as “Adams Family Papers: An Electronic Archive”. It is a perfect source of Abigail’s letters for scholars.

“Abigail Adams Letters for the Years 1784 Thru 1816.” Family Tales. Web. 23 July 2013.

This website provides a very wide range of historic letters. The letters can be browsed by people (244 historic figures are provided such as Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and James Madison), places (over 300 cities and towns are given such as Philadelphia, Baltimore, and New York ) or years (listed under three categories; 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries). The letters are also grouped together along a common theme (such as letters of condolence and famous letters between Abigail and John Adams) or event (Battle of Fort Sumter, Battle of Quebec during the American Revolution, and Last Days of the Confederacy).  It publishes only 63 Abigail’s letters from a total of 9 locations to a total of 16 recipients including Mary Cranch, and Elizabeth Shaw. Most of Abigail Adams’s letters were written in the year 1785. Several other letters were written in 1786 and 1787. Although the website offers hundreds of searchable records and is meant to be that can used by researchers, the website lacks formal organization. It is easy to find specific information but the letters of Abigail are not many. Unclear information about the publisher or editor is given. It needs more efforts and a good structure.

Adams, Abigail, and Stewart Mitchell. New Letters of Abigail Adams: 1788-1801. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1947. Print.

This book publishes 141 letters written over a period of fourteen years, dating from 1788 to 1801. The majorities of letters were composed from the three American capital cities at different times: New York from 1789 to 1790, Philadelphia from1790 to 1800, and Washington from 1800 to 1801. The introduction consists of three sections: additional information about the letters that offers historical background, a short biography of Abigail Adams, and a whole section about the fall of John Adams as a politician written by Stewart Mitchel. New Letters includes also pictures of people, places, and manuscripts. It also includes calendar of letters listed chronologically with topics. The calendar gives more depth to the understanding of the letters. Provides also at the end two family trees: the Quincy-Smith family of New England and the John Smith-Adams family of New York. Although New Letters of Abigail Adams: 1788-1801 is treated as a recommended source by the National Women’s Hall of Fame and the American National Biography Online, several additions ought to be taken into account. Editor includes additions and corrections at the end. An index is provided. Explanatory footnotes providing additional information is included. New Letters is a good and ambitious source for edited selections of Abigail’s’ letters.

“Adams Family Papers: An Electronic Archive.” Adams Family Papers : An Electronic ArchiveThe Massachusetts Historical Society.  Web. 22 July 2013

Publishes 1,160 letters exchanged between John Adams and his wife, Abigail Adams, dating from 1762 to 1801. It includes only 430 letters of Abigail. All letters but one are part of the Adams Family Papers of the Massachusetts Historical Society. It provides full color digital images of manuscripts alongside the corresponding transcriptions. The transcriptions of the letters were derived from the Adams Family Correspondence, volumes 1–2, L. H. Butterfield, Editor, Wendell D. Garrett, and Marjorie E. Sprague, Assistant Editors (Cambridge, Mass, 1963). The website divides the letters into six sections: letters during courtship and early legal career, 1762 – 1774; letters during Continental Congress, 1774 – 1777; letters during diplomatic mission to France, 1778 – 1779; letters during diplomatic mission to Europe, 1779 – 1789; letters during vice presidency, 1789 – 1796 and letters during presidency, 1796 – 1801. It also lists the correspondence as (written by Abigail Adams to John Adams) or (written by John Adams to Abigail Adams.) Contains additional information about the correspondence and an autobiography of John Adams but does not supply one of Abigail. A solid work, yet needs to include more letters . Offers not only a useful database of these familial letters during this period of time but also includes records of John Adams’s diary.

“Founders Online.” Founders Online. The National Archives. Web. 22 July 2013.

Created by The National Archives and The University of Virginia Press, this website offers nearly 20,000 fully searchable records, written by or addressed to, six of the most important figures of the American history: George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin. This massive work is edited by: University of Virginia, University of Chicago, Princeton University, Columbia University, the Massachusetts Historical Society, the American Philosophical Society, and Yale University. Founders Online also includes 719 letters of Abigail Adams covering only 10 years of their life dating from 1784 to 1793. The letters of John and Abigail Adams can be also traced through either recipients or periods. The top recipients include: John Adams (249 letters), Mary Smith Cranch (87), John Quincy Adams (54), Cotton Tufts (38) James Lovell (34) Mercy Otis Warren (27), John Thaxter (25), Thomas Jefferson (22), Elizabeth Smith Shaw (22), and Elizabeth Smith Shaw Peabody (16). The periods are: Colonial (40 letters), Revolutionary War (290), Confederation Period (269), and Washington Presidency (120). Searching through dates is also available in the website. It is a massive and tremendous work, but does now cover the whole range of Abigail’s correspondence with neither John Adams nor other recipients.